Effect of Testing on Achievement, 1910-2010: Survey Studies

The Effect of Testing on Achievement: Survey Studies, 1910-2010

(c) 2011 Richard P Phelps

Nonpartisan Education Review / Resources

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The Effect of Testing on Achievement: Meta-Analyses and Research Summary, 1910–2010

Source List, Effect Sizes, and References for Survey Studies

 

The text of this study will be published in the International Journal of Testing. The study summarizes the research literature on the effect of testing on student achievement, which comprises several hundred studies conducted from the early 20th century to the present day. Only survey studies, however, are included here (N studies = 247; N effects = 813; total respondent population . 700,000). Moreover, the surveys summarized here are limited to North America from the year 1958–2008.

 

Surveys measure perceptions of effects—either through public opinion polls or surveys of groups selected within program evaluations. The mean effect size (for the perception that testing has a positive effect on achievement) exceeds +1.0, a very large effect. Effect sizes are relatively weaker, however, for situations in which one group is held accountable for the performance of another—holding either teachers or schools accountable for student scores.

 


THE EFFECT OF TESTING ON ACHIEVEMENT, SURVEY STUDIES


Poll/survey organization / individuals

Year

Survey type

Respondent group(s)

Geographic coverage

Effect size*

Gallup-American Institute of Public Opinion

1958

Poll

adults

US

0.2

Gallup Organization

1961

Poll

adults

US

1.5

Gallup Organization

1962

Poll

adults

US

1.7

Project Talent, U. Pittsburgh

1964

Evaluation

administrators, teachers

US

-0.9

Sharp, Evelyn W

1966

Poll

teachers

US

1.1

Gallup

1976

Poll

adults

US

0.8

CBS News

1978

Poll

adults

US

1.8

Gallup

1978

Poll

adults

US

1.0

Beck & Stetz

1978

Evaluation

teachers

US

-0.1

Ward

1979

Poll

teachers

US

0.4

Gallup

1979

Poll

adults

US

2.2

Anastasi, Geisinger

1980

Evaluation

parents, teachers

US

1.4

Horn

1980

Evaluation

administrators, board presidents, legislators, teachers

NV

0.5

Yankelovich, Skelly & White

1980

Poll

parents, graduates

US

1.5

Gallup

1980

Poll

adults

US

1.0

UCLA, Center for the Study of Evaluation

1981

Evaluation

principals, teachers

US

1.3

Gallup

1981

Poll

adults

US

1.5

ABC News, Washington Post

1981

Poll

parents, principals

US

0.6

Gallup

1981

Poll

adults

US

2.6

G. B. Johnson

1981

Evaluation

administrators, parents, teachers, students

DODS in Europe

2.6

Menahem & Weisman

1981

Evaluation

parents, teachers

US

4.3

Center for the Study of Evaluation

1982

Evaluation

teachers

US

1.5

Estes, Demaline

1982

Evaluation

adults

CA, FL, IL, MT, TX, WI

0.9

Glasnapp, Poggio, Miller

1983

Evaluation

administrators, board members, teachers

KS

1.4

NEA Research

1983

Poll

teachers

US

-0.5

Gallup

1983

Poll

adults, parents

US

1.8

Metropolitan Life

1984

Poll

teachers

US

1.1

Gullickson

1984

Evaluation

teachers

SD

1.0

Higgenbotham

1984

Evaluation

legislators, superintendents, teachers

US

0.3

Associated Press, Media General

1984

Poll

adults

US

2.5

Gallup

1984

Poll

adults, parents

US

1.7

Stager, Green

1984

Evaluation

teachers

WY

0.2

Gallup

1985

Poll

adults, parents

US

2.6

Institute for Research on Teaching, Freeman, Cusick, Houang

1985

Poll

adults

US

2.9

Market Opinion Research

1985

Poll

adults

US

3.2

Public Policy Resources Lab

1986

Poll

adults

TX

1.6

Center for Survey Research

1986

Poll

adults

NV

2.7

Arizona Republic, Phoenix Gazette

1986

Poll

adults

AZ

1.4

Survey Research Center

1986

Poll

adults

MD

2.0

Gallup

1986

Poll

adults, parents

US

1.7

Talmey-Drake Research & Strategy

1986

Poll

adults

CO

2.6

Green

1986

Evaluation

teachers, students

2 Western states

1.0

Ryan McGinn Samples Research

1986

Poll

adults

WV

1.7

Market Opinion Research

1986

Poll

adults

US

3.2

Glasnapp, Poggio, Miller

1987

Evaluation

administrators, board members, parents, students, teachers

KS

2.4

Corbett, Wilson

1987

Evaluation

teachers, administrators

MD

1.1

Corbett, Wilson

1987

Evaluation

teachers, administrators

PA

0.6

Gallup

1987

Poll

adults, parents

US

1.2

Ferrara, Wilhoft, Seburn, Slaughter, Stevenson

1988

Evaluation

administrators

MD

4.9

Met Life

1988

Poll

teachers

US

3.2

Hall, Carroll, Comer

1988

Evaluation

teachers

FL

-0.4

Gallup

1988

Poll

adults, parents

US

1.7

Stake, Theobald

1988

Evaluation

teachers

7 US states

1.7

South Carolina Division of Public Accountability

1989

Evaluation

students

SC

1.3

Stevenson, Chen, Uttal

1989

Evaluation

parents

IL

1.6

Gallup

1989

Poll

adults

US

1.5

Green, Williams

1989

Evaluation

teachers

WY

0.4

Green, Williams

1989

Evaluation

teachers

LA

0.6

Urban Research Institute

1989

Poll

adults

KY

2.2

O’Sullivan

1989

Evaluation

teachers

NC

0.0

Boston College Center for Study of Testing, Education, and Policy

1990

Evaluation

teachers

US

-0.9

Anderson, Muir, Bateson, Blackmore, Rogers.

1990

Evaluation

counselors, parents, principals, students, superintendents, teachers

British Columbia

1.2

Calder

1990

Evaluation

teachers, students

Alberta

0.2

Moore

1990

Evaluation

teachers

Midwest

-1.0

Carnegie Foundation

1990

Poll

teachers

US

0.2

Flynn

1990

Evaluation

adults

NC

1.0

CBS News

1990

Poll

adults

US

0.6

Ryan McGinn Samples Research

1990

Poll

teachers

WV

1.3

Gallup

1990

Poll

adults

US

0.9

Metropolitan Life

1991

Poll

teachers

US

0.5

Harnisch, Switzer

1991

Evaluation

teachers

US

7.2

Bond, Cohen

1991

Evaluation

administrators

IN

2.2

Louis Harris

1991

Poll

adults

US

1.7

Gallup

1991

Poll

adults

US

1.7

Hart and Teeter

1991

Poll

adults

US

0.9

Gallup

1991

Poll

adults

US

0.9

Smith, Hounshell, Copolo, & Wilkerson

1992

Evaluation

teachers

NC

-0.8

Marso & Pigge

1992

Evaluation

teachers

OH

-0.8

Gallup

1992

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.6

Ryan McGinn Samples Research

1992

Poll

adults

WV

2.5

U.S. General Accounting Office

1992

Evaluation

administrators

US

1.2

Metropolitan Life

1993

Poll

teachers

US

0.0

Market Strategies

1993

Poll

adults

MI

3.5

Gallup

1993

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.5

NU Stats, Inc.

1993

Poll

adults

US

1.6

Gallup

1994

Poll

adults, parents

US

2.0

Public Agenda, CRC

1994

Poll

adults

US

1.9

Peter D. Hart

1994

Poll

teachers

US

1.5

Louis Harris

1995

Poll

teachers

US

1.1

Peter D. Hart

1995

Poll

teachers

US

1.0

Gallup

1995

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.7

Public Agenda

1995

Poll

adults, teachers

US

1.3

Public Agenda

1996

Poll

students, teachers

US

1.3

Tarrance; Mellman, Lazurus & Lake

1996

Poll

adults

US

2.2

Miller, David M, University of Florida

1996

Evaluation

teachers

AL

-0.7

Miller, David M, University of Florida

1996

Evaluation

teachers

CT

-0.4

Miller, David M, University of Florida

1996

Evaluation

teachers

DE

-0.3

Miller, David M, University of Florida

1996

Evaluation

teachers

NC

-0.2

Miller, David M, University of Florida

1996

Evaluation

teachers

RI

-0.5

Behuniak, Chudowsky, Dirir

1997

Evaluation

teachers

CT

0.8

Montana State U., Billings

1997

Poll

adults

MT

2.3

Gallup

1997

Poll

adults

US

1.3

Hart and Teeter

1997

Poll

adults

US

1.8

Public Agenda

1997

Poll

professors, teachers

US

1.0

Penn, Schoen & Berland

1997

Poll

registered voters

US

1.7

Gallup

1997

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.4

Public Agenda

1997

Poll

adults, teachers, principals, superintendents

SC

1.5

NAESP

1997

Poll

principals

US

0.5

Hart and Teeter

1997

Poll

adults

US

1.3

Lane, Parke, Stone

1997

Evaluation

principals, students, teachers

US

-0.5

Wirthlin Quorum Survey

1997

Poll

adults

US

3.0

American Viewpoint

1997

Poll

registered voters

US

2.1

Lane, Ventrice, Cerrillo, Parke, Stone

1997

Evaluation

principals, teachers

US

0.0

Parke, Lane

1998

Evaluation

students

MD

0.4

Zogby International

1998

Poll

adults

US

1.9

Penn, Schoen & Berland

1998

Poll

adults

US

2.2

Gallup

1998

Poll

adults

US

1.9

Princeton Survey Research

1998

Poll

adults

US

1.1

Lane, Ventrice, Cerrillo, Parke, Stone

1998

Evaluation

principals, students, teachers

MD

0.0

Public Agenda

1999

Poll

adults, parents, professors, teachers, students

US

2.2

Gallup

1999

Poll

adults, parents

US

3.3

Bradshaw

1999

Evaluation

teachers, administrators

NC

0.8

Yarbrough

1999

Evaluation

teachers

NC

1.0

International Communications Research

1999

Poll

adults, parents

US

1.8

Penn, Schoen & Berland

1999

Poll

registered voters

US

1.9

Guth, et al

1999

Evaluation

adults, parents, school districts

US

2.5

Legislative Office of Education Oversight

2000

Evaluation

teachers

US

0.8

Times-Dispatch

2000

Poll

teacher

US

3.0

Mulvenon, Connors, Lenares

2000

Evaluation

teachers

AR

0.4

Public Agenda

2000

Poll

adults, employees, parents, teachers

US

2.0

Gallup

2000

Poll

adults

US

3.3

Public Agenda

2000

Poll

parents

US

0.5

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

teachers

US

0.9

Public Agenda

2000

Poll

parents

US

1.0

Haselkorn, Harris, Peter Harris Research Group

2000

Poll

adults

CA

1.4

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

adults, parents

OH

1.2

Cleveland Plain Dealer

2000

Poll

lawmakers

OH

-0.6

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

adults, parents

MS

2.1

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

adults, parents

VA

1.6

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

adults

WV

2.5

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

adults

US

0.9

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

adults, parents

NY

2.1

Beldon Russonello & Stewart

2000

Poll

adults, parents

IL

2.6

Program on International Policy Attitudes

2000

Poll

adults

US

2.0

Gallup

2000

Poll

adults, parents

US

-0.3

Luntz, Laszlo

2000

Poll

adults

US

-0.1

Center for Survey Research, Heldrick Center

2000

Poll

adults

US

1.9

Angus Reid Group

2000

Poll

adults

Ontario

1.6

Harris Interactive

2000

Poll

parents (public schools -- NE, IA)

US

0.3

Opinion Research Corporation

2000

Poll

parents (public schools)

US

0.6

Arizona Republic, Phoenix Gazette

2000

Poll

adults

AZ

0.6

ABC News, Washington Post

2000

Poll

adults

US

-0.6

Lake, Snell, Perry

2000

Poll

parents

US

1.6

Odum Institute for Research

2000

Poll

adults

NC

1.1

The Advocate (Baton Rouge)

2000

Poll

adults

LA

0.6

Albert Shanker Institute

2000

Poll

teachers

US

1.3

Albert Shanker Institute

2001

Poll

teachers

US

0.3

Debard, R., & Kubow, P. K.

2001

Evaluation

students, teachers

OH

0.6

Hoffman, Assaf, Paris

2001

Evaluation

Texas State Reading Association members

TX

-0.5

Public Agenda

2001

Poll

employers, parents, principals, professors, students, teachers

US

1.0

COMPAS

2001

Poll

adults

Canada

1.3

Wisconsin Policy Research Institute

2001

Poll

adults

WI

1.3

Odum Institute for Research

2001

Poll

adults

NC

0.1

Market Shares Corporation

2001

Poll

adults

IL

0.4

International Communications Research

2001

Poll

adults

US

0.2

Opinion Dynamics

2001

Poll

adults

US

1.0

Hart & Teeter

2001

Poll

adults

US

2.5

New York Times, CBS News

2001

Poll

adults

US

0.3

Center for Survey Research

2001

Poll

adults

VA

0.2

Gallup

2001

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.1

Hart & Teeter, Coldwater Corporation

2001

Poll

administrators, adults, parents, teachers

US

1.4

Commonwealth Poll, Genesis Sampling Systems

2001

Poll

administrators, adults, parents, teachers

VA

0.5

Lumley, Yan

2001

Evaluation

teachers

PA

0.1

Institute for Social Research

2001

Poll

adults

US

1.5

CBS News, New York Times

2001

Poll

adults

US

0.3

Los Angeles Times

2001

Poll

adults

CA

1.7

Quinnipiac University Polling Institute

2001

Poll

adults

NY

2.1

Harris Interactive

2001

Poll

adults

US

1.2

Ryan, McGinn Samples Research

2001

Poll

adults

WV

2.3

Greenberg, Quinlan & Tarrance Group

2001

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.8

The Tarrance Group, Inc.

2001

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.9

Princeton Survey Research

2001

Poll

adults

US

1.2

Public Policy Institute (CA)

2001

Poll

adults

CA

0.6

Gallup

2001

Poll

adults

US

1.6

CBS News, New York Times

2001

Poll

adults

US

0.3

Pedulla, Abrams, Madaus, Russell, Ramos, Miao

2001

Evaluation

teachers

US

-1.1

McDonald

2002

Evaluation

teachers

Alberta

-0.7

Jones, Johnston

2002

Evaluation

teachers

NC

1.6

Winston Group

2002

Poll

adults

US

1.1

Jones, Egley

2002

Evaluation

teachers

FL

-0.1

U. Arkansas Survey Research Center

2002

Poll

adults

AR

0.9

Fairbanks, Maslin, Maullin & Assoc.

2002

Poll

adults

CA

1.1

Market Shares Corporation

2002

Poll

adults

IN

0.0

Quinnipiac University Polling Institute

2002

Poll

adults

NY

2.2

Gallup

2002

Poll

adults

US

1.6

Center for Survey Research

2002

Poll

adults

VA

0.3

Peter D. Hart Research Associates

2002

Poll

students

US

0.9

Hart & Teeter

2002

Poll

adults

US

1.8

Public Policy Institute (CA)

2002

Poll

adults

CA

1.3

Opinion Dynamics

2002

Evaluation

students

US

1.5

Bolt

2002

Evaluation

teachers

US

-1.6

Ryan, McGinn Samples Research

2002

Poll

adults

WV

2.3

Public Policy Institute (CA)

2002

Poll

adults

CA

0.6

Lake, Snell, Perry & Associates

2003

Poll

adults

US

1.1

McMillan

2003

Evaluation

teachers

VA

2.1

Pew Hispanic Center

2003

Poll

adults

US

0.2

Gallup

2003

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.3

Hart & Teeter

2003

Poll

adults

US

0.2

Peter D. Hart Research Associates

2003

Poll

students

US

0.7

Moon, Callahan, Tomlinson

2003

Evaluation

teachers

US

1.2

Public Agenda

2003

Poll

principals

US

-0.3

Peter D. Hart Research Associates

2004

Poll

graduates

US

1.8

Phi Delta Kappa

2004

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.3

Hart & Teeter

2004

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.1

Lake, Snell, Perry & Associates

2004

Poll

adults

US

0.2

Public Ed Network & Education Week

2004

Poll

adults

US

2.9

Winston Group

2004

Poll

adults

US

1.0

Mu & Childs

2005

Evaluation

parents

Canada

1.7

Texas Federation of Teachers

2005

Poll

teachers

TX

-3.4

COMPAS, Inc.

2005

Poll

teachers

Ontario

-5.5

Gallup

2005

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.1

Hart Research, Coldwater Corp, Public Opinion Strategy

2005

Poll

students

US

1.8

National Governor's Association

2005

Poll

students

US

1.4

Hart Research, Winston Group

2005

Poll

administrators, adults, parents, principals, teachers

US

1.1

James

2005

Evaluation

elementary teachers

US

-1.2

US Chamber of Commerce Statistics and Research Center

2006

Poll

business leaders

US

4.6

Gallup

2006

Poll

adults, parents

US

0.0

Hart Research & Winston Group

2006

Poll

administrators, adults, business leaders, college faculty, parents, students, teachers

US

0.9

Public Agenda

2006

Poll

parents, principals, students, superintendents, teachers

US

-0.3

Gallup

2007

Poll

adults

US

-0.9

Gallup

2007

Poll

parents

US

0.0

Hart Research Associates

2007

Poll

adults, parents, teachers

US

-0.6

Scripps Howard News Service

2007

Poll

adults

US

-0.2

Public Agenda, FDR Group

2007

Poll

parents

KS, MO

2.3

Knowledge Networks

2007

Poll

adults

US

1.2

Roller

2008

Poll

International Reading Association members

US

-0.1

Torres, Zellner, Erlandson

2008

Evaluation

principals

US

-0.3

Clune, White

2008

Evaluation

teachers

US

1.0

Gallup

2008

Poll

adults, parents

US

1.6

Markow, Cooper

2008

Poll

principals, teachers

US

0.7

Lake Research Partners

2008

Poll

adults

US

0.0

COMPAS

2008

Poll

parents, teachers

British Columbia

0.7

 

* These are unweighted effect sizes.


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Citation: Phelps, R.P. (2011). The Effect of Testing on Achievement: Meta-Analyses and Research Summary, 1910–2010: Source List, Effect Sizes, and References for Survey Studies, Nonpartisan Education Review / Resources. Retrieved [date] from http://npe.educationnews.org/Review/Resources/SurveyList.pdf

 

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